4G wireless technology developments

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Definition of 4G

The 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks achieved after the convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computer, consumer electronics, communication technology, and several other convergences that will be capable of providing 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s, respectively, in outdoor and indoor environments with end-to-end QoS and high security, offering any kind of services anytime, anywhere, at affordable cost and one billing.

According to the 4G working groups, the infrastructure and the terminals will have almost all the standards from 2G to 3G implemented. The infrastructure will however only be packet based, all-IP. The system will also serve as an open platform where the new innovations can go with it.

4G standards

  • WiMAX
  • WiBro
  • 3GPP Long Term Evolution
  • 3GPP2 Ultra Mobile Broadband

Services where 4G is used

  • Wireless broadband access
  • Multimedia Messaging Service
  • Video chat
  • Mobile TV
  • High definition TV content,
  • DVB
  • Minimal service like voice and data

4G objectives

  • A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bit/s/Hz/site)
  • High network capacity
  • A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s at high speeds and 1 Gbit/s at stationary conditions as defined by the ITU-R
  • A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world
  • Smooth handoff across heterogeneous network
  • Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks
  • High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc)
  • Interoperability with the existing wireless standards
  • An all IP, packet switched network

Technology overview

Mindmap below shows the overview of emerging technologies in 4G

Parameter 4G

Wimax 01.jpeg


Wibro 02.jpeg


Lte 03.jpeg


Hsopa 04.jpeg


Umb 05.jpeg

Access scheme OFDMA OFDMA SC-FDMA Uplink
OFDMA Downlink
SC-FDMA Uplink
OFDMA Downlink
Channel Bandwidth 3.5, 5, 7, 8.75, 10, 15, 20MHz 8.75MHz 1.25, 1.6, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz 1.25 - 20 MHz
FFT size 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048 1024 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1536, 2048 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1536, 2049 N/A
Data rate 70 Mbps 30 - 50 Mbps 100 Mbps Downlink
50 Mbps Uplink
14.4 Mbps 275 Mbps Downlink
75 Mbps Uplink
Antenna System MIMO-AAS smart antenna subsystems.
(6 - antenna array)
MIMO-AAS smart antenna subsystems.
(6 - antenna array)
MIMO-AAS smart antenna subsystems.
(4 - antenna array)
MIMO-AAS smart antenna subsystems. MIMO-AAS smart antenna subsystems.
FEC scheme Convolution Code
Convolution Turbo Code
Convolution Code
Convolution Turbo Code
Convolution Code
Turbo Code
Modulation BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM QPSK, 8PSK 16 QAM 16 QAM BPSK, 8PSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
Frequency band 2.3GHz ~ 2.4GHz 2.3GHz ~ 2.4GHz 2010MHz ~ 2025MHz N/A 450 MHz to 3.6GHz
Cell coverage 10 KM 1 KM 5 - 100 KM N/A N/A

Mobile technology roadmap


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WiMAX Dashboard

  • WiMAX is defined as "Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access" by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16 standard, officially known as WirelessMAN. WiMAX aims to provide wireless data over long distances, in a variety of different ways, from point to point links to full mobile cellular type access. In practical terms this enables a user, for example, to browse the Internet on a laptop computer without physically connecting the laptop to a wall jack.

Background Information

Spectrum coverage by geography Image below shows the spectrum for WiMAX users World wide.

Spectrum for WiMAX users World wide

Market research data:

  • Worldwide WiMAX equipment revenues are forecast to reach $3.26 billion in 2009
  • Worldwide outdoor wireless mesh access node sales are forecast to reach $1.17 billion in 2009
  • Samsung leads overall WiMAX equipment revenue share in 3Q06, ahead of Alvarion, Airspan, and Aperto Networks
  • Strix Systems leads overall outdoor mesh revenue market share in 3Q06, just ahead of Tropos Networks and BelAir Networks
  • 35% of WiMAX equipment sales come from Asia Pacific, 30% from EMEA, 20% from North America, and 14% from CALA
  • 49% of wireless mesh access node sales come from North America, 25% from EMEA, 18% from Asia Pacific, and 8% from CALA
  • 802.16 standards The first 802.16 standard was approved in December 2001. It delivered a standard for point to multipoint Broadband Wireless transmission in the 10-66 GHz band, with only a Line of Sight (LOS) capability. It uses a single carrier (SC) physical (PHY) standard. Source


  1. IEEE 802.16-2004 (802.16d) addresses only fixed systems
  2. IEEE Std 802.16e-2005, also called mobile WiMAX
    • 802.16e also bring Multiple Antenna Support through Multiple-input multiple-output communications. This brings potential benefits in terms of coverage, self installation, power consumption, frequency re-use and bandwidth efficiency. 802.16e also adds a capability for full mobility support.
  3. WiMAX II, 802.16m will be proposed for IMT-Advanced 4G (future development)
    • 3GPP LTE and WiMAX-m are concentrating much effort on MIMO-AAS, mobile multi-hop relay networking and related developments needed to deliver 10X and higher Co-Channel reuse multiples.

IEEE 802.16e-2005 improves upon IEEE 802.16-2004 by:

  • Scaling of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to the channel bandwidth in order to keep the carrier spacing constant across different channel bandwidths (1.25-20 MHz). Constant carrier spacing results in a higher spectrum efficiency in wide channels, and a cost reduction in narrow channels. Also known as Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA).
  • Improving NLOS coverage by utilizing advanced antenna diversity schemes, and hybrid-Automatic Retransmission Request (hARQ)
  • Improving coverage by introducing Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS) and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology
  • Increasing system gain by use of denser sub-channelization, thereby improving indoor penetration
  • Introducing high-performance coding techniques such as Turbo Coding and Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC), enhancing security and NLOS performance
  • Introducing downlink sub-channelization, allowing administrators to trade coverage for capacity or vice versa
  • Enhanced Fast Fourier Transform algorithm can tolerate larger delay spreads, increasing resistance to multipath interference
  • Adding an extra QoS class (enhanced real-time Polling Service) more appropriate for VoIP applications.
  • Adding support for mobility (soft and hard handover between base stations). This is seen as one of the most important aspects of 802.16e-2005, and is the very basis of 'Mobile WiMAX'. Source

Technology mapping parameters

IEEE 802.16e Protocol Stack

Content delivery

QoS service for WiMAX Content Delivery as per standard

Unsolicited Grant Service Real-Time Variable Rate Service Non-Real-Time Variable Rate service Best Efforts Service Extended Real-Time Variable Rate Service.
Real time service (e.g.VoIP) generating fixed data rate. Data can be provided as either fixed or variable length PDU. Real-time service (e.g.MPEG) applications with variable bit rates. Require guaranteed data rate and delay. Non Real time service (FTP) for guaranted data rate.This service is insensetive to delays.It is desirable in certain cases to limit the data rate of these services to some maximum rate. The intent of the BE service grant scheduling type is to provide efficient service for best effort traffic in the


This service is to support real-time applications with variable data-rates, which require guaranteed data and delay, for example VoIP with silence suppression.
Parameters 1) Minimum reserved traffic rate
2) Maximum Latency
3)Request/Transmission Policy
4) Unsolicited Grant Interval
1) Maximum Latency
2) Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate
3) Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate
4) Traffic priority
5)Request/Transmission policy
6) Unsolicited Polling Interval
1) Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate
2) Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate
3) Traffic priority
4)Request/Transmission policy
1) Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate
2) Traffic priority
3)Request/Transmission policy
1) Maximum Latency
Tolerated Jitter
2) Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate
3) Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate
4) Traffic Priority
5)Request/Transmission Policy
6) Unsolicited Grant Interval

WiMAX Network Reference Model

Access Service network(ASN): The ASN coordinates traffic across multiple Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) and supports security, handoffs and Quality of Service (QoS).

  • The ASN interfaces the BTS and the all-IP core network—the CSN. Typically the ASN includes numerous BTSs with one or more ASN gateways.
  • The ASN manages radio resources, MS access, mobility, security and QoS. It acts as a relay for the CSN for IP address allocation and AAA functions.

WiMAX Network Reference Model
Interface Description Functionality
R1 Interface between the MS and the ASN Air interface
R2 Interface between the MS and the CSN AAA (Authentication, Authorization, & Accounting ), IP host configuration, mobility management
R3 Interface between the ASN and the CSN AAA, policy enforcement, mobility management
R4 Interface between the ASNs Mobility management
R5 Interface between the CSNs Internetworking,roaming
R6 Interface between BTS and ASN gateways IP tunnel management to establish and release MS connection
R8 Interface between the BTSs Handoffs

ASN Gateway functions

  • Service Flow Authorization
  • Authentication and key distribution
  • Session/Context maintenance
  • Handover co-ordination & Mobility management
  • Paging control
  • Accounting client
  • DHCP proxy/relay
  • MIP client/FA
  • Data-path management and (re)-anchoring
  • Policy Enforcement
  • Multiple BS, ASN, CSN configurations



Table below shows some of the products using WiMAX technology.

Company Product Image
Main category Sub category
Intel System on Chip (SoC) WiMAX Connection 2250  

Document2 01.jpeg

Redline Communication Subscriber station RedMAX™ Indoor Subscriber Unit (SU-I)  

Document2 02.jpeg

Airspan Base station HiperMAX  

Document2 03.jpeg

Samsung WiMAX mobile phone Samsung SPH-P9000 Cellphone  

Document2 04.jpeg

Navini networks Antenna system Ripwave™ MX 2.3GHz  

Document2 05.jpeg

Sample analysis


WiMAX deals


WiBro is an acronym for wireless broadband and is actually a term that is in the process of being phased out in favor of the more collaborative and generic Mobile WiMAX.

  • Korean standards makers early on adopted the term to describe their initiatives towards adopting a version of the 802.16e standard.
  • Basically, the Korean standard chose to accept a specific mobile WiMAX iteration of 802.16e, rather than any future version that included backwards compatibility to fixed wireless 802.16 systems.
  • Korea enjoys probably the most extensive 3G deployments in the world already, and its fixed broadband access per capita is the highest in the world. What it needed was an improved mobile broadband. In fact, the Korean government issued the first three deployment licenses for WiBro/Mobile WiMAX in January of 2005.
  • WiBro/Mobile WiMAX in many respects is driving the mobile side of WiMAX at least from the point of view of vendors eager to provide products to these early deployments. This decision however, results in a backwards compatibility problem with Fixed WiMAX standards or 802.16-2004.
  • The smooth interoperability of previous WiBro gear from Samsung with other vendors such as Motorola should be cemented this year as these two companies along with Intel have been chosen as the primary vendor for Sprint Nextel’s WiMAX deployment. The two companies clearly have a powerful incentive for their products to work seamlessly.


  • WiBro is an integral part of IEEE 802.16e


Industry news:

  • South Korean telco SK Telecom and Wavesat, a Canadian developer of a WiMAX chipset, software and development platform have signed an agreement to cooperate in the development of WiBro/OFDMA technology for next generation mobile devices.
  • Wavesat will work with SK Telecom (SKT) to develop WiBro/OFDMA systems-on-chips (SoCs), system tools and a development kit based on the WiBro 802.16e S-OFDMA profile. The U-mobile product portfolio from Wavesat will allow WiMAX wireless system providers (OEMs/ODMs) worldwide to develop and deploy fully mobile WiMAX and WiBro solutions.Source

Products Overview

Company Product Image
Main category Sub category
Samsung Mobile Station M8000 WiBro handset  

Document5 01.jpg

Super WiBro Phone  

Document5 02.jpg

WiBro-enabled notebook pc  

Document5 03.jpg

Access control Router Access control Router  

Document5 04.jpg

Kisan Telecom Base station WiBro Repeater  

Document5 05.jpg

i-River Mobile Station G10 games console  

Document5 06.jpg

Korea Telekom USB modem iPlug Premium  

Document5 07.jpg

3GPP Long Term Evolution

3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements.

  • LTE focus is on Enhancement of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) and Optimisation of the UTRAN architecture.
  • Downlink based on OFDMA (OFDMA offers improved spectral efficiency, capacity, etc)
  • Uplink based on SC-FDMA (single carrier) (SC-FDMA is technically similar to OFDMA but is better suited for uplink from hand-held devices- more considerations on battery power)


  • Download rates of 100 Mbit/s, and upload rates of 50 Mbit/s for every 20 MHz of spectrum
  • At least 200 active users in every 5 MHz cell. (ie 200 active phone calls)
  • Sub-5ms latency for small IP packets
  • Increased spectrum flexibility, with spectrum slices as small as 1.25 MHz (and as large as 20 MHz) supported (W-CDMA requires 5 MHz slices, leading to some problems with roll-outs of the technology in countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allocated amount of spectrum, and is frequently already in use with legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne.) Limiting sizes to 5 MHz also limited the amount of bandwidth per handset
  • Optimal cell size of 5 km, 30 km sizes with reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance
  • Co-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should coverage be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS)

3GPP LTE protocol stack



Company Products Image
Main category Sub category
Rohde & Schwarz Signal Analyzer FSQ Signal Analyzer  

3GPP LTE 01.jpeg

Pourseyed_UBC_IEEE_PDF.pdf Sierra Wireless PC cards PC card  

3GPP LTE 02.jpeg

Anritsu Company Test Systems MX785201A test systems  

3GPP LTE 03.jpeg

Anritsu Company MD8480C signaling tester  

3GPP LTE 04.jpeg

Picochip Bse station Base station damo  

3GPP LTE 05.jpeg


High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA) is a proposed part of 3GPP's Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade path for UMTS systems. HSOPA is also often referred to as Super 3G. If adopted, HSOPA succeeds HSDPA and HSUPA technologies specified in 3GPP releases 5 and 6. Unlike HSDPA or HSUPA, HSOPA is an entirely new air interface system, unrelated to and incompatible with W-CDMA. Features of HSOPA


  • Flexible bandwidth usage with 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz bandwidths. By comparison, W-CDMA uses fixed size 5 MHz chunks of spectrum.
  • Increased spectral efficiency at 2-4 times more than in 3GPP release 6, peak transfer rates of 100 Mbit/s for downlink and 50 Mbit/s for uplink.
  • Latency times of around 20 ms for round trip time from user terminal to RAN, approximately the same as a combined HSDPA/HSUPA system, but much better than "classic" W-CDMA.


HSOPA uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna technology to support up to 10 times as many users as W-CDMA based systems, with lower processing power required on each handset.[1]. Still in development, experimental performance is 37 Mbit/s in the downlink over a 5 MHz channel, close to the theoretical maximum of 40 Mbit/s.



Company Products Image
Main category Sub category
Orange PC crad PC card  

HSOPA 01.jpeg

Samsung Mobile SGH-Z620  

HSOPA 02.jpeg

T - mobile MDA Vario III  

HSOPA 03.jpeg

Sarian Router HR4110 HSDPA router  

HSOPA 04.jpeg

Centro technologies RF HSDPA Test Cases MINT T1152-HSDPA  

HSOPA 05.jpeg

3GPP2 Ultra Mobile Broadband

UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband) is the brand name for the project within 3GPP2 to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements.The system employs OFDMA technology along with advanced antenna techniques to provide peak rates of up to 280 Mbit/s.

Goals for UMB:

  • Improving system capacity
  • Greatly increasing user data rates throughout the cell
  • Lowering costs
  • Enhancing existing services
  • Making possible new applications, and
  • Making use of new spectrum opportunities.

The technology will provide users with concurrent IP-based services in a full mobility environment. The UMB standardization is expected to be completed in mid 2007, with commercialization taking place around mid-2009.


  • OFDMA-based air interface
  • Frequency Division Duplex
  • Scalable bandwidth between 1.25-20 MHz (OFDMA systems are especially well suited for wider bandwidths larger than 5 MHz)
  • Supports mixed cell sizes, e.g., macro-cellular, micro-cellular & pico-cellular.
  • IP network architecture
  • Supports flat, centralized and mixed topologies
  • Data speeds over 275 Mbit/s downstream and over 75 Mbit/s upstream Source

More infromation

Key features

  • Multiple radio and advanced antenna techniques
    1. Sophisticated control and signaling mechanisms (minimized) combine the best aspects of CDMA, TDM, OFDM, and OFDMA into a single air interface
    2. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
    3. Improved interference management techniques
  • Ultra-high mobile broadband peak data rates
    1. Up to 280Mbps peak data rate on forward link
    2. Up to 68Mbps peak data rate on reverse link
  • Ultra-low network latency
    1. An average of 16.8 msec (32-byte, RTT) end-to-end network latency
  • Enhanced VoIP capacity and user experience
    1. Up to 500 simultaneous VoIP users (10 MHz FDD allocations)
  • Scalable IP-based flat or hierarchical architecture
    1. Greater service deployment flexibility, improved performance, and lower cost of ownership
  • Flexible spectrum allocations
    1. Scalable, non-contiguous and dynamic channel (bandwidth) allocations
    2. Support for bandwidth allocations of 1.25 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz and 20 MHz
  • Less power consumption
    1. Improved battery life




Company Products Image
Main category Sub category
OQO Inc Ultra mobile PC OQO Model 2 ultra mobile  

3GPP2 UMB 01.jpeg

3 Mobile Broad band USB Mobile Broadband USB modem  

3GPP2 UMB 02.jpeg

Sprint Mobile Broadband Card EV-DO card  

3GPP2 UMB 03.jpeg

Qualcomm Base station Base station N/A

Process Chart


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