Difference between revisions of "LTE"

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This report presents a brief summary about LTE-MIMO.A detailed taxonomy which covers most of the aspects of LTE is presented. A sample of mapping patents to the standard by using graphical analysis and patent ranking is presented. LTE related ETSI and non-ETSI documents are also shown. 
+
This report presents a brief summary about Dolcera's capabilities in working with standards, with LTE as an example. The taxonomy covers most of the important aspects of LTE. Also presented are examples of mapping patents to standards going to the detail of graphical analysis. Analysis of IPR declarations made to ETSI, and documents uncovered by Dolcera search is also provided.
 
+
'''Dolcera Landscape Procedure'''
+
* Background study - Background study is done with web search depending on the area of client interest.
+
* Finding key player/inventors - Web search is carried out to find the products and technologies of key players.
+
* Patents Search -
+
** Key patents search.
+
** Prepared search queries using keywords and classification and finalized these in Micropat/Thompson.
+
* Patents Classification - Classify all patents by creating taxonomy.
+
* Specific analysis as required by client like SWOT, SOA, PEST, Claim, and White Space analysis.
+
* Reporting -
+
** All necessary data are presented in format of wiki or in form of power point slides.
+
** Dashboard - Graphical representation of Patents classification.
+
 
+
  
 
==Rationale==
 
==Rationale==
* LTE is the most suited technology as it provides higher data rates required for the future and is an advancement over widely used GSM/EDGE/HSPA
+
* LTE is the most suited mobile technology as it provides higher data rates required for the future and is an improvement over the established GSM/EDGE/HSPA systems
* A number of corporate giants are looking towards LTE as the technology enabling future communication
+
* LTE is promoted by major corporates as the technology enabling future communication
* The following factors are expected to be obtained with the realization of LTE
+
* The following advantages are expected to be obtained with the realization of LTE
 
** Reduced cost per bit
 
** Reduced cost per bit
 
** Increased service provisioning - more services at lower cost with better user experience
 
** Increased service provisioning - more services at lower cost with better user experience
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==Background description==
 
==Background description==
  
LTE (Long Term Evolution), is the latest standard in the mobile network technology that came into existence because of the growing needs of faster data rates. It is a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which  realized this technology. LTE is an advancement to previously realized technologies such as GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSxPA etc.Although LTE is often marketed as 4G, first-release LTE is actually a 3.9G technology since it does not fully comply with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements.  
+
LTE (Long Term Evolution), is the latest standard in the mobile network technology that came into existence because of the growing needs of faster data rates. It is a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which  realized this technology. LTE is an advancement to previously realized technologies such as GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSxPA etc. Although LTE is often marketed as 4G, first-release LTE is actually a 3.9G technology since it does not fully comply with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements.  
  
Update - LTE-Advanced has been granted 4G compliance given the significant improvement they provide over 3G technologies [http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2010/48.aspx]
+
LTE-Advanced has been granted 4G compliance given the significant improvement they provide over 3G technologies [http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2010/48.aspx]
[[Image:299.jpg|centre|300px|thumb|[http://www.unwiredview.com/2009/02/18/verizon-att-lte-details LTE technology ]]]
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[[Image:lte-evolve.jpg|centre|500px|thumb|[http://www.4gamericas.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page&sectionid=249 '''LTE Evolution''' ]]]
Voice traffic will be supported mainly as Voice over IP (VoIP) enabling better integration with other multimedia services.LTE is being designed to be a high data rate and low latency system. LTE is also aimed at minimizing cost and power consumption while ensuring backward-compatibility and a cost effective migration from UMTS systems.  
+
 
 +
Voice traffic will be supported mainly as Voice over IP (VoIP) enabling better integration with other multimedia services. LTE is being designed to be a high data rate and low latency system. LTE is also aimed at minimizing cost and power consumption while ensuring backward-compatibility and a cost effective migration from UMTS systems.  
 
[http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/lte-long-term-evolution/3g-lte-basics.php LTE tutorial]
 
[http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/lte-long-term-evolution/3g-lte-basics.php LTE tutorial]
  
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LTE is expected to support different types of services including web browsing, FTP, video streaming, VoIP, online gaming, real time video, push-to-talk and push-to-view. Therefore, it is being designed to be a high data rate and low latency system as indicated by the key performance criteria shown below.
 
LTE is expected to support different types of services including web browsing, FTP, video streaming, VoIP, online gaming, real time video, push-to-talk and push-to-view. Therefore, it is being designed to be a high data rate and low latency system as indicated by the key performance criteria shown below.
  
[[Image:per.jpg|500px|thumb|centre|[http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Business/Solutions/Industry%20Solutions/Service%20Providers/Wireless%20Operators/LTE/_Document/Static%20Files/6834_MotDoc_New.pdf '''Performance Requirements''']]]
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[[Image:lte-p.jpg|800px|thumb|centre|[http://www.3gpp.org/LTE '''Fig.1 LTE Release 8 Major Parameters <br> Fig.2 LTE-Release 8 User Equipment Categories ''']]]
  
 
==LTE architecture==
 
==LTE architecture==
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There are two types of LTE frame structure:
 
There are two types of LTE frame structure:
  
* '''Type 1:used for the LTE FDD mode systems'''
+
* '''Type 1: FDD systems'''
 
** The basic type 1 LTE frame has an overall length of 10 ms. This is then divided into a total of 20 individual slots. LTE sub frames then consist of two slots - in other words there are ten LTE sub frames within a frame.
 
** The basic type 1 LTE frame has an overall length of 10 ms. This is then divided into a total of 20 individual slots. LTE sub frames then consist of two slots - in other words there are ten LTE sub frames within a frame.
  
 
[[Image:type1f.jpg|thumb|centre|600px|[http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/lte-long-term-evolution/lte-frame-subframe-structure.php LTE frame structure]]]
 
[[Image:type1f.jpg|thumb|centre|600px|[http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/lte-long-term-evolution/lte-frame-subframe-structure.php LTE frame structure]]]
  
* '''Type 2:used for the LTE TDD systems'''
+
* '''Type 2: TDD systems'''
 
** The frame structure for the type 2 frames used on LTE TDD is somewhat different. The 10 ms frame comprises two half frames, each 5 ms long. The LTE half-frames are further split into five sub frames, each 1ms long.
 
** The frame structure for the type 2 frames used on LTE TDD is somewhat different. The 10 ms frame comprises two half frames, each 5 ms long. The LTE half-frames are further split into five sub frames, each 1ms long.
  
Line 89: Line 77:
  
 
==Taxonomy==
 
==Taxonomy==
<mm>[[LTE-taxonomy.mm]]</mm>
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{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
 +
|<mm>[[Long Term Evolution3.mm|title Long Term Evolution|border]]</mm>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Major players in the ETSI list for LTE==
 +
[[Image:etsifa.jpg|centre|1000px|]]
 +
 
 +
==Relevant Documents for LTE in the ETSI list==
 +
 
 +
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''S.No'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Publication Number'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Title'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Filing date'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Expiry date'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Priority Date'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Assignee/Applicant'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Count of Cited Refs - Patent'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Rating'''</font>
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=5754976.PN.&OS=PN/5754976&RS=PN/5754976 US5754976A]</u></font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Algebraic codebook with signal-selected pulse amplitude/position combinations for fast coding of speech
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|7/28/1995
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|7/28/2015
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"| 1990-02-23 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1992-09-10 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1995-02-06 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1995-07-28
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, CA
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|44
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"|2
 +
|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6724976.PN.&OS=PN/6724976&RS=PN/6724976 US6724976B2]</u></font>
 +
|align = "center"|Communication system
 +
|align = "center"|12/21/2000
 +
|align = "center"|12/21/2020
 +
|align = "center"| 1992-03-26 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1992-09-25 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1993-03-25 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1993-09-27 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1998-04-22 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2000-02-16 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2000-12-21
 +
|align = "center"|Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka, JP
 +
|align = "center"|110
 +
|align = "center"|3
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6633600.PN.&OS=PN/6633600&RS=PN/6633600 US6633600B2]</u></font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Traffic lights in a code division multiple access (CDMA) modem
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|4/24/2001
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|4/24/2021
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"| 1995-06-30 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1996-06-27 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1998-02-17 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1999-11-22 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2001-04-24
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|InterDigital Technology Corporation, Wilmington, DE, US
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|85
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"|4
 +
|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7190966.PN.&OS=PN/7190966&RS=PN/7190966 US7190966B2]</u></font>
 +
|align = "center"|Method and apparatus for performing an access procedure
 +
|align = "center"|6/29/2005
 +
|align = "center"|6/29/2025
 +
|align = "center"| 1996-06-27 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1998-01-06 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2000-11-22 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2002-03-01 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2003-03-26 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2004-06-14 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2005-06-29
 +
|align = "center"|InterDigital Technology Corporation, Wilmington, DE, US
 +
|align = "center"|91
 +
|align = "center"|4
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|5
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7437177.PN.&OS=PN/7437177&RS=PN/7437177 US7437177B2]</u></font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Method employed by a base station for controlling initial power ramp-up using short codes
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3/14/2008
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3/14/2028
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"| 1996-06-27 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1998-01-06 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2000-11-22 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2002-03-01 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2003-03-26 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2004-06-14 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2005-06-29 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2008-03-14
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|InterDigital Communications Corp., Wilmington, DE, US
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|190
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|4
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
'''Disclaimer:'''
 +
* Rating is given based on claims, no.of cited patents, expiry date and priority date
 +
* Rating is done on a scale from 1 to 5
 +
 
 +
==Ranking of ETSI patents==
 +
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''S.No'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Patent/Publication No.'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''International Class (primary)'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Assignee'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Title'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Publication Year'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Priority Year(s)'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Legal Status'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Rank'''</font>
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220100182939%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20100182939&RS=DN/20100182939 US20100182939A1]</u></font>
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|H04J000300
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Nokia Corporation
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Configuration of multi-periodicity semi-persistent scheduling for time division duplex operation in a packet-based wireless communication system
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2010
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4" |2008 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2009
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''2'''
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"|2
 +
|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://v3.espacenet.com/searchResults?NUM=EP2181559A1&DB=EPODOC&submitted=true&locale=en_V3&ST=number&compact=false EP2181559A1]</u></font>
 +
|H04W003608
 +
|Nokia Siemens Networks
 +
|Handover of a user equipment with forwarding and reusing a user equipment configuration
 +
|align = "center"|2010
 +
|2007 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2008 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2008
 +
|Request for Examination Filed
 +
|align = "center"|'''2'''
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://v3.espacenet.com/searchResults?NUM=EP1961141A2&DB=EPODOC&submitted=true&locale=en_V3&ST=number&compact=false EP1961141A2]</u></font>
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|H04L000100
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Ericsson AB
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Efficient channel quality reporting and link adaptation for multi-carrier broadband wireless communication
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2008
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"| 2005 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2006 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2006
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Request for Examination Filed
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''2'''
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"|4
 +
|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220110029834%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20110029834&RS=DN/20110029834 US20110029834A1]</u></font>
 +
|H04L000118
 +
|Alcatel-Lucent
 +
|Method for operating harq buffer
 +
|align = "center"|2011
 +
|2008 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2009 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2009
 +
|Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination
 +
|align = "center"|'''2'''
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|5
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220090086710%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20090086710&RS=DN/20090086710 US20090086710A1]</u></font>
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|H04J000324
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Qualcomm Incorporated
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Method and apparatus for implementing lte rlc header formats
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2009
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4" |2007 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2008
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''3'''
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
'''Click here to see full list of [[Ranking of ETSI patents]]'''
 +
 
 +
'''Disclaimer: Patent ranking has been done according to the following logic:'''
 +
*'''Rank-1:'''  Granted +  LTE related (claims)
 +
*'''Rank-2''': Published + LTE related (claims)
 +
*'''Rank-3''':  LTE related (Full spec )
 +
*'''Rank-4''': May be relevant and requires further analysis
 +
*'''Rank-5''': Abandoned or Expired
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[Image:ptrank1.jpg|centre|800px]]
 +
 
 +
'''Note:''' Here a total of '''44''' patents from ETSI have been taken, out of which '''Qualcomm Incorporated''' has '''6''' patents, '''Alcatel-lucent''' has '''8''' patents, '''Ericsson AB''', '''Nokia corporation''', '''Nokia Siemens Networks'''  have '''10 each '''
  
 
==MIMO(Multiple Input Multiple Output)==
 
==MIMO(Multiple Input Multiple Output)==
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To achieve this diverse set of objectives, LTE adopted various MIMO technologies including transmit diversity, single user (SU)-MIMO, multiuser (MU)-MIMO, closed-loop rank-1 precoding, and dedicated beamforming. [http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/302092.html MIMO in LTE]
 
To achieve this diverse set of objectives, LTE adopted various MIMO technologies including transmit diversity, single user (SU)-MIMO, multiuser (MU)-MIMO, closed-loop rank-1 precoding, and dedicated beamforming. [http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/302092.html MIMO in LTE]
 
[[Image:mimo.jpg|thumb|700px|centre|[http://www.radion.co.in/mimo_basics MIMO working]]]
 
[[Image:mimo.jpg|thumb|700px|centre|[http://www.radion.co.in/mimo_basics MIMO working]]]
 +
 +
  
 
==Concept table for MIMO==
 
==Concept table for MIMO==
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==Control patents==
 
==Control patents==
  
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
+
*Control patents are mostly used 
 +
** to prepare concepts
 +
** to search classes, and
 +
** to verify the search strategy
 +
*Control patents are found by running a query with narrow keywords, and in this process litigation's and file wrappers are also looked at.
 +
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" width="100%"
 
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''S.No'''</font>
 
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''S.No'''</font>
 
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Patent/Publication No.'''</font>
 
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Patent/Publication No.'''</font>
Line 378: Line 524:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
 
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7295624.PN.&OS=PN/7295624&RS=PN/7295624 US7295624 ]</u></font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6873606.PN.&OS=PN/6873606&RS=PN/6873606 US6873606 ]</u></font>
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Wireless system with hybrid automatic retransmission request in interference-limited communications
+
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Rate adaptive transmission scheme for MIMO systems
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|A wireless receiver for receiving signals from an interference-limited transmitter in an interference-limited system comprising at least one transmit antenna, wherein the signals comprise a plurality of symbols. The receiver comprises a plurality of receive antennas and collection circuitry for collecting a plurality of signal samples with at least one symbol and interference effects. The receiver also comprises suppression circuitry, accumulation circuitry, circuitry for providing estimates of a group of bits, error detection circuitry and circuitry for requesting the transmitter to transmit a retransmission of a packet in response to detecting an error.  
+
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|A rate adaptive transmission scheme for MIMO systems, which can transmit a variable number of data symbol streams, provide transmit diversity for each data symbol stream, and fully utilize the total transmit power of the system and the full power of each antenna. In one method, at least one data symbol stream is received for transmission from a plurality of antennas. Each data symbol stream is scaled with a respective weight corresponding to the amount of transmit power allocated to that stream. The scaled data symbol stream(s) are multiplied with a transmit basis matrix to provide a plurality of transmit symbol streams for the plurality of antennas. The transmit basis matrix (e.g., a Walsh-Hadamard matrix or a DFT matrix) is defined such that each data symbol stream is transmitted from all antennas and each transmit symbol stream is transmitted at (or near) the full power for the associated antenna.  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align = "center"|2
 
|align = "center"|2
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6873606.PN.&OS=PN/6873606&RS=PN/6873606 US6873606 ]</u></font>
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7233625.PN.&OS=PN/7233625&RS=PN/7233625 US7233625 ]</u></font>
|Rate adaptive transmission scheme for MIMO systems
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|Preamble design for multiple input--multiple output (MIMO), orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system
|A rate adaptive transmission scheme for MIMO systems, which can transmit a variable number of data symbol streams, provide transmit diversity for each data symbol stream, and fully utilize the total transmit power of the system and the full power of each antenna. In one method, at least one data symbol stream is received for transmission from a plurality of antennas. Each data symbol stream is scaled with a respective weight corresponding to the amount of transmit power allocated to that stream. The scaled data symbol stream(s) are multiplied with a transmit basis matrix to provide a plurality of transmit symbol streams for the plurality of antennas. The transmit basis matrix (e.g., a Walsh-Hadamard matrix or a DFT matrix) is defined such that each data symbol stream is transmitted from all antennas and each transmit symbol stream is transmitted at (or near) the full power for the associated antenna.  
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|One or more preambles are inserted into frames of Orthogonal Frequency Multiplexing (OFDM)-Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) signals. The preamble is received by the antennas of a receiver, decoded and compared to known values to provide synchronization, framing, channels estimation, offsets and other corrections to the transmitted signal.  
 
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7233625.PN.&OS=PN/7233625&RS=PN/7233625 US7233625 ]</u></font>
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7248559.PN.&OS=PN/7248559&RS=PN/7248559 US7248559 ]</u></font>
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Preamble design for multiple input--multiple output (MIMO), orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Scattered pilot pattern and channel estimation method for MIMO-OFDM systems
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|One or more preambles are inserted into frames of Orthogonal Frequency Multiplexing (OFDM)-Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) signals. The preamble is received by the antennas of a receiver, decoded and compared to known values to provide synchronization, framing, channels estimation, offsets and other corrections to the transmitted signal.  
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|A method and apparatus are provided for reducing the number of pilot symbols within a MIMO-OFDM communication system, and for improving channel estimation within such a system. For each transmitting antenna in an OFDM transmitter, pilot symbols are encoded so as to be unique to the transmitting antenna. The encoded pilot symbols are then inserted into an OFDM frame to form a diamond lattice, the diamond lattices for the different transmitting antennae using the same frequencies but being offset from each other by a single symbol in the time domain. At the OFDM receiver, a channel response is estimated for a symbol central to each diamond of the diamond lattice using a two-dimensional interpolation. The estimated channel responses are smoothed in the frequency domain. The channel responses of remaining symbols are then estimated by interpolation in the frequency domain.  
 
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7248559.PN.&OS=PN/7248559&RS=PN/7248559 US7248559 ]</u></font>
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7548506.PN.&OS=PN/7548506&RS=PN/7548506 US7548506 ]</u></font>
|Scattered pilot pattern and channel estimation method for MIMO-OFDM systems  
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|System access and synchronization methods for MIMO OFDM communications systems and physical layer packet and preamble design
|A method and apparatus are provided for reducing the number of pilot symbols within a MIMO-OFDM communication system, and for improving channel estimation within such a system. For each transmitting antenna in an OFDM transmitter, pilot symbols are encoded so as to be unique to the transmitting antenna. The encoded pilot symbols are then inserted into an OFDM frame to form a diamond lattice, the diamond lattices for the different transmitting antennae using the same frequencies but being offset from each other by a single symbol in the time domain. At the OFDM receiver, a channel response is estimated for a symbol central to each diamond of the diamond lattice using a two-dimensional interpolation. The estimated channel responses are smoothed in the frequency domain. The channel responses of remaining symbols are then estimated by interpolation in the frequency domain.  
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|A method and apparatus are provided for performing acquisition, synchronization and cell selection within an MIMO-OFDM communication system. A coarse synchronization is performed to determine a searching window. A fine synchronization is then performed by measuring correlations between subsets of signal samples, whose first signal sample lies within the searching window, and known values. The correlations are performed in the frequency domain of the received signal. In a multiple-output OFDM system, each antenna of the OFDM transmitter has a unique known value. The known value is transmitted as pairs of consecutive pilot symbols, each pair of pilot symbols being transmitted at the same subset of sub-carrier frequencies within the OFDM frame.  
 
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7548506.PN.&OS=PN/7548506&RS=PN/7548506 US7548506 ]</u></font>
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7120395.PN.&OS=PN/7120395&RS=PN/7120395 US7120395 ]</u></font>
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|System access and synchronization methods for MIMO OFDM communications systems and physical layer packet and preamble design
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|MIMO communications  
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|A method and apparatus are provided for performing acquisition, synchronization and cell selection within an MIMO-OFDM communication system. A coarse synchronization is performed to determine a searching window. A fine synchronization is then performed by measuring correlations between subsets of signal samples, whose first signal sample lies within the searching window, and known values. The correlations are performed in the frequency domain of the received signal. In a multiple-output OFDM system, each antenna of the OFDM transmitter has a unique known value. The known value is transmitted as pairs of consecutive pilot symbols, each pair of pilot symbols being transmitted at the same subset of sub-carrier frequencies within the OFDM frame.
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|The present invention allows a wireless communication system, such as a base station, to select N antennas from an associated group of M antennas for transmitting multiple streams of data to a given user. Based on the channel conditions between the M antennas of the wireless communication system and the multiple antennas at the receiver, the N antennas to use for transmission are selected to enhance channel capacity, signal-to-noise ratios, or a combination thereof. The channel conditions are measured at the receiver, and may be sent back to the wireless communication system for processing or may be processed at the receiver, wherein instructions are transmitted back to the wireless communication system to control antenna selection.  
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7120395.PN.&OS=PN/7120395&RS=PN/7120395 US7120395 ]</u></font>
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|MIMO communications
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|The present invention allows a wireless communication system, such as a base station, to select N antennas from an associated group of M antennas for transmitting multiple streams of data to a given user. Based on the channel conditions between the M antennas of the wireless communication system and the multiple antennas at the receiver, the N antennas to use for transmission are selected to enhance channel capacity, signal-to-noise ratios, or a combination thereof. The channel conditions are measured at the receiver, and may be sent back to the wireless communication system for processing or may be processed at the receiver, wherein instructions are transmitted back to the wireless communication system to control antenna selection.
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7283499.PN.&OS=PN/7283499&RS=PN/7283499 US7283499 ]</u></font>
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Simplified practical rank and mechanism, and associated method, to adapt MIMO modulation in a multi-carrier system with feedback
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|A method of adapting transmission parameters in a multicarrier communication system having multiple transmit antennas and/or multiple receive antennas, whereby a statistical parameter of a wideband channel is computed, one type of matrix modulation scheme is selected to be used for a given multicarrier modulation symbol, one type of signal constellation is selected to be used for a given multicarrier modulation symbol, and one concatenated channel coding rate is selected to be used for a given multicarrier modulation symbol. Multicarrier modulation symbols are then transmitted using the selected matrix modulation scheme, signal constellation, and concatenated channel coding rate.
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7194040.PN.&OS=PN/7194040&RS=PN/7194040 US7194040 ]</u></font>
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|Beam-steering and beam-forming for wideband MIMO/MISO systems
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|Techniques to perform beam-steering and beam-forming to transmit data on a single eigenmode in a wideband multiple-input channel. In one method, a steering vector is obtained for each of a number of subbands. Depending on how the steering vectors are defined, beam-steering or beam-forming can be achieved for each subband. The total transmit power is allocated to the subbands based on a particular power allocation scheme (e.g., full channel inversion, selective channel inversion, water-filling, or uniform). A scaling value is then obtained for each subband based on its allocated transmit power. Data to be transmitted is coded and modulated to provide modulation symbols. The modulation symbols to be transmitted on each subband are scaled with the subband<nowiki>’</nowiki>s scaling value and further preconditioned with the subband<nowiki>’</nowiki>s steering vector. A stream of preconditioned symbols is then formed for each transmit antenna.
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7336727.PN.&OS=PN/7336727&RS=PN/7336727 US7336727 ]</u></font>
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Generalized m-rank beamformers for MIMO systems using successive quantization
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|The telecommunications system described herein implements a multi-rank beamformer for use in wireless systems equipped with multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas. The multi-rank beamformer uses finite-rate feedback of channel conditions to achieves close to theoretical performance indicated by the water-filling algorithm, while avoiding the computational complexity associated with space time codes. In addition, the multi-rank beamforming system described herein improves on the performance of unit rank beamforming methods by maintaining the gains over space time codes over a broader range of transmission rate
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7702029.PN.&OS=PN/7702029&RS=PN/7702029 US7702029 ]</u></font>
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|MIMO precoding enabling spatial multiplexing, power allocation and adaptive modulation and coding
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|In a closed-loop wireless communication system, a codebook-based feedback mechanism is provided to enable non-unitary precoding for multi-stream transmission, where in each stream is optimized with suitable transmission power allocation and AMC. The codebook-based feedback mechanism uses a precoding codebook having a power allocation matrix which is constrained to specify that beamforming always applies full power to a predetermined beam. With this constraint, a one-bit power allocation feedback index may be used to switch between beamforming and spatial multiplexing.
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220080247479%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20080247479&RS=DN/20080247479 US20080247479 ]</u></font>
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Pilot Scheme For A Mimo Communication System
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|The present invention employs a pilot scheme for frequency division multiple access (FDM) communication systems, such as single carrier FDM communication systems. A given transmit time interval will include numerous traffic symbols and two or more short pilot symbols, which are spaced apart from one another by at least one traffic symbol and will have a Fourier transform length that is less than the Fourier transform length of any given traffic symbol. Multiple transmitters will generate pilot information and modulate the pilot information onto sub-carriers of the short pilot symbols in an orthogonal manner. Each transmitter may use different sub-carriers within the time and frequency domain, which is encompassed by the short pilot symbols within the transmit time interval. Alternatively, each transmitter may uniquely encode the pilot information using a unique code division multiplexed code and modulate the encoded pilot information onto common sub-carriers of the short pilot symbols.
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7630356.PN.&OS=PN/7630356&RS=PN/7630356 US7630356 ]</u></font>
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|Methods for supporting MIMO transmission in OFDM applications
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|Aspects of the present invention provide MAC enhancements to support the PHY features of a MIMO-OFDMA framework. The MAC enhancements involve DL burst assignment to support adaptive MIMO transmission, UL burst assignment to support adaptive MIMO transmission, fast feedback channel operation to support wireless terminal dynamic feedback of MIMO mode selection, for example space time transmit diversity (STTD) or spatial multiplexing (SM), and/or permutation mode selection, for example diversity or adjacent subcarrier mode, dynamic CQICH allocation and de-allocation and the use of CQICH_ID for DL burst allocation. One or more of these enhancements is included in a given implementation. Methods are also provided for implementing the MAC enhancements.
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220080165875%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20080165875&RS=DN/20080165875 US20080165875 ]</u></font>
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Multi-user MIMO-SDMA for finite rate feedback systems
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|A multi-user MIMO downlink beamforming system with limited feedback is provided to enable preceding for multi-stream transmission, where a channel codeword (u.sub.i) and one or more channel quality indicator values (CQI.sub.A, CQI.sub.B) are computed at the user equipment on the basis of maximizing a predetermined SINR performance metric (.rho..sub.i) which estimates the receive signal-to-noise-ratio (SINR) at the user equipment . The computed codeword (u.sub.i) and CQI values (or differential values related thereto) are quantized and fed back to help the base station which applies a correction to the appropriate CQI value in the course of designing the transmit beamforming vectors w and determining the appropriate modulation and coding level to be used for downlink data transmission.
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220100142455%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20100142455&RS=DN/20100142455 US20100142455 ]</u></font>
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|Systems and methods for uplink power control
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|A method for uplink power control is described. A user equipment (UE) power class may be determined. An uplink multiple access scheme may also be determined. The maximum transmission power for the UE may further be determined according to the determined uplink multiple access scheme and the UE power class.
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220040082356%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20040082356&RS=DN/20040082356 US20040082356 ]</u></font>
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|MIMO WLAN system
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|A multiple-access MIMO WLAN system that employs MIMO, OFDM, and TDD. The system uses a channel structure with a number of configurable transport channels, supports multiple rates and transmission modes, which are configurable based on channel conditions and user terminal capabilities, employs a pilot structure with several types of pilot (e.g., beacon, MIMO, steered reference, and carrier pilots) for different functions, implements rate, timing, and power control loops for proper system operation, and employs random access for system access by the user terminals, fast acknowledgment, and quick resource assignments. Calibration may be performed to account for differences in the frequency responses of transmit/receive chains at the access point and user terminals. The spatial processing may then be simplified by taking advantage of the reciprocal nature of the downlink and uplink and the calibration.
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220090046800%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20090046800&RS=DN/20090046800 US20090046800 ]</u></font>
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|Feedback and rate adaptation for MIMO transmission in a Time Division Duplexed (TDD) communication system
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|Techniques for sending a MIMO transmission in a wireless communication system are described. In one design, a transmitter sends a first reference signal to a receiver. The receiver selects a precoding matrix based on the first reference signal and in accordance with a selection criterion. The receiver estimates noise and interference at the receiver and determines channel quality indicator (CQI) or modulation and coding scheme (MCS) information based on the precoding matrix and the estimated noise and interference. The receiver sends the CQI or MCS information and a second reference signal to the transmitter. The transmitter selects the precoding matrix based on the second reference signal and in accordance with the same selection criterion used by the receiver. The transmitter then sends a MIMO transmission to the receiver based on the CQI or MCS information obtained from the receiver and the precoding matrix selected by the transmitter.
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220080188259%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20080188259&RS=DN/20080188259 US20080188259 ]</u></font>
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|CQI reporting for MIMO transmissionin a wireless communication system
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Techniques for determining and reporting channel quality indicator (CQI) information are described. A user equipment (UE) may determine a transmit power per channelization code, P.sub.OVSF, based on the available transmit power and a designated number of channelization codes, e.g., by uniformly distributing the available transmit power across all transport blocks and all of the designated number of channelization codes. The UE may estimate SINRs of multiple transport blocks based on P.sub.OVSF, determine CQI indices for the transport blocks based on the SINRs, and send the CQI indices to a Node B. The Node B may send multiple transport blocks to the UE based on the CQI indices. The Node B may send the transport blocks (i) with the designated number of channelization codes at P.sub.OVSF or (ii) with a second number of channelization codes at P.sub.OVSF, with the transport block sizes being scaled based on the designated and second numbers of channelization codes.
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220090086849%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20090086849&RS=DN/20090086849 US20090086849 ]</u></font>
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|Method and apparatus of improved circular buffer rate matching for turbo-coded MIMO-OFDM wireless systems
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|Methods and apparatus for determining the starting points of redundancy version transmissions in a circular rate matching operation. At least one block of information bits to be transmitted are encoded to generate a plurality of coded bits, which are then segmented into a plurality of sub-blocks of coded bits. Each of the sub-blocks of coded bits is interleaved by using a certain interleaver. The interleaved coded bits of the plurality of sub-blocks are collected and filled into a circular buffer having a plurality of redundancy versions in the circular buffer, with each redundancy version corresponding to a starting bit index in the circular buffer. For each transmission, a subset of bits are selected from the circular buffer by selecting a redundancy version from among the plurality of redundancy version. The selected subset of bits are modulated by using a certain modulation scheme, and are transmitted via at least one antenna. The redundancy versions of the circular being determined such that in at least one pair of redundancy versions, the number of bits between the starting point of a first redundancy version and the starting point of a second redundancy version is not divisible by at least one modulation order.
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220060045169%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20060045169&RS=DN/20060045169 US20060045169 ]</u></font>
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Coded-bit scrambling for multi-stream communication in a mimo channel
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|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|In one embodiment, a multi-input/multi-output system includes a receiver , processor, coded bit scrambler, coded bit descrambler , and transmitter . The receiver generates demodulated symbol streams corresponding to a received signal. The processor generates coded bit sequences from source bit streams when operating in a transmit mode and bit log-likelihood ratio sequences from the information bit streams when operating in a receive mode. The coded bit scrambler scrambles the coded bit sequences to generate scrambled bit streams when in the transmit mode. The coded bit descrambler descrambles the log-likelihood ratio sequences by a real-valued descrambling sequence when operating in the receive mode, and also removes the effect of a scrambling sequence. The transmitter generates a transmit signal corresponding to the scrambled bit streams.
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|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220070105503%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20070105503&RS=DN/20070105503 US20070105503 ]</u></font>
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|Systems and methods for reducing uplink resources to provide channel performance feedback for adjustment of downlink MIMO channel data rates
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|Systems and methods for improving the performance of a MIMO wireless communication system by reducing the amount of uplink resources that are needed to provide channel performance feedback for the adjustment of data rates on the downlink MIMO channels. In one embodiment, a method comprises encoding each of a set of data streams according to corresponding data rates, permuting the data streams on a set of MIMO channels according to a full permutation of combinations, transmitting the permuted data streams, receiving the permuted data streams, decoding and determining an SNR for each of the data streams, computing a condensed SNR metric for the set of data streams, providing the condensed metric as feedback, determining a set of individual SNR metrics for the data streams based on the condensed SNR metric, and adjusting the data rates at which the data streams are encoded based on the individual SNR metrics.  
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'''Click here to see full list of [[LTE control patents]]'''
  
 
=='''[[Search Strategy - MIMO]]'''==
 
=='''[[Search Strategy - MIMO]]'''==
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==Patent mapping by graphical analysis==
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==Company wise distribution of IP==
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[[Image:lte-all.jpg|thumb|1100px|centre|Company wise distribution of IP]]
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Sno.'''</font>
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Patent/Publication No.'''</font>
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Title'''</font>
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Figure analyzed'''</font>
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Analyzed result'''</font>
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Standard mapped into'''</font>
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|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220070217538%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20070217538&RS=DN/20070217538 US20070217538A1 ]</font>
+
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Systems and methods for improving performance of multiple spatial communication channels
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://dolcera.com/wiki/images/2007.pdf Figure 4 ]</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|DL data rate: 220 M bps for 3x3 advanced MIMO-SVD
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://www.3gpp.org/LTE LTE release 8, category 4 ]</font>
+
|-
+
|align = "center"|2
+
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220090232229%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20090232229&RS=DN/20090232229 US20090232229A1 ]</font>
+
|Device, system and method of resource allocation in a wireless network
+
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://dolcera.com/wiki/images/2009.pdf Figure 2A ]</font>
+
|align = "center"|DL data rate: 210 M bps for a 2x2 MIMO at cell centre  
+
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://www.3gpp.org/LTE LTE release 8, category 5]</font>
+
|-
+
|}
+
  
==Patent ranking==
+
'''Note:'''
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
+
* The subsidiaries of Nokia includes : Nokia Telecommunication Oy and Nokia Siemens.
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Sno.'''</font>
+
* The subsidiaries of Ericsson/LM Ericsson includes : Ericsson GE Mobile Communications Inc, ST-Ericsson, Sony Ericcson.
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Patent/Publication No.'''</font>
+
* The Subsidiaries of Alcatel includes : Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel Shangai bell company, Alcatel Transmission, Lucent Technologies, CIT Alcatel.
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''US Class (primary)'''</font>
+
* The Subsidiaries of NTT includes : Nippondenso Co, NTT Docomo.
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Title'''</font>
+
* The subsidiaries of NEC Corp includes : NEC Access technica Ltd.,NEC Laboratories.
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Publication Year'''</font>
+
* The subsidiaries of Phlilps  includes : Philips Electronics, Philips Intellectual property & standards.
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Priority Year(s)'''</font>
+
* The subsidiaries of Fujistu  includes : Fujistu ten Limited, Fujitsu Microelectronics Limited.
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Legal Status'''</font>
+
* The subsidiaries of AT&T includes : AT&T Mobility, AT & T BLS Intellectual Property, AT&T Bell Laboratories, AT&T Wireless Services Inc., BellSouth Intellectual Property Corporation.
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Rank'''</font>
+
==Filing trends over the years==
|-
+
[[Image:ftf.jpg|thumb|1000px|centre|Filing trends over the years]]
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
+
==Year by year trends of top 5 companies==
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7548730.PN.&OS=PN/7548730&RS=PN/7548730 US7548730B2 ]</font>
+
[[Image:fttf.jpg|thumb|1000px|centre|Year by year trends of top 5 companies]]
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|375267
+
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Systems and methods for improving performance of multiple spatial communication channels
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2007
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2006
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Patented Case
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
+
|-
+
|align = "center"|2
+
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220090232229%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20090232229&RS=DN/20090232229 US20090232229A1 ]</font>
+
|align = "center"|375260
+
|Device, system and method of resource allocation in a wireless network
+
|align = "center"|2009
+
|align = "center"|2008
+
|align = "center"|Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination
+
|align = "center"|2
+
|-
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220080187066%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20080187066&RS=DN/20080187066 US20080187066A1 ]</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|375267
+
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Detection method and apparatus for a multi-stream MIMO
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2008
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2007
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Non Final Action Mailed
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2
+
|-
+
|align = "center"|4
+
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7796546.PN.&OS=PN/7796546&RS=PN/7796546 US7796546B2 ]</font>
+
|align = "center"|370315
+
|Apparatus and method for supporting multiple links in a network using frequency bands
+
|align = "center"|2007
+
|align = "center"|2006
+
|align = "center"|Patented Case
+
|align = "center"|4
+
|-
+
|}
+
  
  
 
+
==Companies with relevant IP for further analysis ==
 
+
[[Image:smallsx.jpg|centre|1000px|]]
'''Disclaimer:''' Patent ranking has been done according to the following logic:
+
*'''Rank-1:'''  Granted +  LTE-MIMO related (claims)
+
*'''Rank-2''': Published + LTE-MIMO related (claims)
+
*'''Rank-3''':  LTE-MIMO related (Full spec )
+
*'''Rank-4''': May be relevant
+
*'''Rank-5''': Abandoned or Expired
+
 
+
==Major players in the ETSI list for LTE==
+
[[Image:etsifa.jpg|centre|1000px|]]
+
==Most Relevant Documents for LTE in the ETSI list==
+
 
+
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''S.No'''</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Publication Number'''</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Title'''</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Filing date'''</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Expiry date'''</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Priority Date'''</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Assignee/Applicant'''</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Count of Cited Refs - Patent'''</font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Rating'''</font>
+
|-
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
+
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=5754976.PN.&OS=PN/5754976&RS=PN/5754976 US5754976A]</u></font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Algebraic codebook with signal-selected pulse amplitude/position combinations for fast coding of speech
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|7/28/1995
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|7/28/2015
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"| 1990-02-23 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1992-09-10 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1995-02-06 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1995-07-28
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Universite de Sherbrooke,Sherbrooke,CA
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|44
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2
+
|-
+
|align = "center"|2
+
|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6724976.PN.&OS=PN/6724976&RS=PN/6724976 US6724976B2]</u></font>
+
|align = "center"|Communication system
+
|align = "center"|12/21/2000
+
|align = "center"|12/21/2020
+
|align = "center"| 1992-03-26 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1992-09-25 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1993-03-25 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1993-09-27 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1998-04-22 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2000-02-16 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2000-12-21
+
|align = "center"|Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.,Osaka,JP
+
|align = "center"|110
+
|align = "center"|3
+
|-
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3
+
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6633600.PN.&OS=PN/6633600&RS=PN/6633600 US6633600B2]</u></font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Traffic lights in a code division multiple access (CDMA) modem
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|4/24/2001
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|4/24/2021
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"| 1995-06-30 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1996-06-27 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1998-02-17 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1999-11-22 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2001-04-24
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|InterDigital Technology Corporation,Wilmington,DE,US
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|85
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3
+
|-
+
|align = "center"|4
+
|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7190966.PN.&OS=PN/7190966&RS=PN/7190966 US7190966B2]</u></font>
+
|align = "center"|Method and apparatus for performing an access procedure
+
|align = "center"|6/29/2005
+
|align = "center"|6/29/2025
+
|align = "center"| 1996-06-27 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1998-01-06 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2000-11-22 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2002-03-01 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2003-03-26 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2004-06-14 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2005-06-29
+
|align = "center"|InterDigital Technology Corporation,Wilmington,DE,US
+
|align = "center"|91
+
|align = "center"|4
+
|-
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|5
+
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7437177.PN.&OS=PN/7437177&RS=PN/7437177 US7437177B2]</u></font>
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Method employed by a base station for controlling initial power ramp-up using short codes
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3/14/2008
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3/14/2028
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"| 1996-06-27 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 1998-01-06 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2000-11-22 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2002-03-01 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2003-03-26 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2004-06-14 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2005-06-29 <nowiki>|</nowiki> 2008-03-14
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|InterDigital Communications Corp.,Wilmington,DE,US
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|190
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|4
+
|-
+
|}
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
'''Disclaimer:'''
+
* Rating is given based on claims,expiry date and priority date
+
* Rating is done on a scale from 1 to 5
+
 
+
==Major players in the non-ETSI list for MIMO==
+
[[Image:non playders.jpg|centre|1000px|]]
+
 
+
==Major companies for low cost IP for MIMO ==
+
[[Image:smalls.jpg|centre|1000px|]]
+
  
 
'''Disclaimer 1:''' Here primarily, companies with an average annual revenue less than 400 million USD are considered. In addition to these, some big companies whose primary interest is not LTE and those which provide IP licensing are also considered.
 
'''Disclaimer 1:''' Here primarily, companies with an average annual revenue less than 400 million USD are considered. In addition to these, some big companies whose primary interest is not LTE and those which provide IP licensing are also considered.
Line 734: Line 664:
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Company wise distribution of IP==
+
==Patent mapping by graphical analysis==
[[Image:t30f.jpg|thumb|1200px|centre|Company wise distribution of IP]]
+
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Sno.'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Patent/Publication No.'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Title'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Figure analyzed'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Analyzed result'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Standard mapped into'''</font>
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220070217538%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20070217538&RS=DN/20070217538 US20070217538A1 ]</font>
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Systems and methods for improving performance of multiple spatial communication channels
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://dolcera.com/wiki/images/2007.pdf Figure 4 ]</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|DL data rate: 220 M bps for 3x3 advanced MIMO-SVD
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://www.3gpp.org/LTE LTE release 8, category 4 ]</font>
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"|2
 +
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220090232229%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20090232229&RS=DN/20090232229 US20090232229A1 ]</font>
 +
|Device, system and method of resource allocation in a wireless network
 +
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://dolcera.com/wiki/images/2009.pdf Figure 2A ]</font>
 +
|align = "center"|DL data rate: 210 M bps for a 2x2 MIMO at cell centre
 +
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://www.3gpp.org/LTE LTE release 8, category 5]</font>
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
==Claim Mapping==
 +
===Process Flow===
 +
[[Image:dp1.jpg|centre|1000px]]
 +
===Sample claim charting===
 +
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#4F81BD"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''S.No.'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#4F81BD"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Patent/Publication No.'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#4F81BD"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Claim Language'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#4F81BD"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Relevant Section in LTE release 8'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#4F81BD"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Technical Comments'''</font>
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#4F81BD" rowspan = "24"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''1'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" rowspan = "24"|<font color="#0000FF"><u>[http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220090318127%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20090318127&RS=DN/20090318127 US20090318127]</u></font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''Claim1'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''4.2.1 PDCP structure''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|The PDCP layer receives data from the lower layer i.e RLC layer
 +
|-
 +
|'''A data communication method in a wireless communication system, the method comprising: receiving, from a lower layer,'''
 +
| [[Image:ramc1.jpg|500px]]
 +
|-
 +
|rowspan = "2"|'''a data unit having a sequence number; storing the received data unit in a buffer;'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''4.3.2 Services expected from lower layers''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|The data from the MAC buffer is delivered to the PDCP layer in sequence (based on sequence number) through the RLC layer
 +
|-
 +
|in-sequence delivery, except at re-establishment of lower layers;
 +
|-
 +
|rowspan = "2"|'''determining whether the sequence number of the received data unit is equal to a sequence number <nowiki>+</nowiki>1 from a sequence number of a last delivered data unit;'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|The next PDCP sequence no. is always set as previous PDCP sequence no. <nowiki>+</nowiki> 1
 +
|-
 +
|set Next_PDCP_RX_SN to the received PDCP SN <nowiki>+</nowiki> 1;
 +
|-
 +
|rowspan = "2"|'''and delivering, in ascending order, all stored data units with consecutively associated sequence numbers greater than or equal to the sequence number of the received data unit based on the determining step.'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|The data unit delivered to the upper layers in an ascending order based on the count value
 +
|-
 +
|deliver to upper layers in ascending order of the associated COUNT value
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''Claim2'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''4.2.1 PDCP structure''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|The layer below the PDCP layer is RLC layer
 +
|-
 +
|'''The method of claim 1, wherein the lower layer is a Radio Link Control (RLC) layer.'''
 +
| [[Image:ramc1.jpg|500px]]
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''Claim3'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''4.2.2 PDCP entities''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|Steps of determining and delivering PDCP data units are performed in a PDCP entity
 +
|-
 +
|'''The method of claim 1, wherein the steps of determining and delivering are performed in a Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) entity.'''
 +
| [[Image:ramc3.jpg|500px]]
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''Claim4'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''4.2.2 PDCP entities''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|On the PDCP SDU, numbering sequence is checked, header compression is done and send to the upper layers
 +
|-
 +
|'''The method of claim 1, wherein the data unit is a PDCP Service Data Unit (SDU).'''
 +
| [[Image:ramc3.jpg|500px]]
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Claim5
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''4.4 Functions''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|SDU is received through a re-establishment of lower layer i.e RLC layer
 +
|-
 +
|'''The method of claim 1, wherein the data unit is received through a RLC re-establishment.'''
 +
|duplicate elimination of lower layer SDUs at re-establishment of lower layers for radio bearers mapped on RLC AM
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Claim6
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|Header decompression or deciphering is done between the stages of receiving and storing the PDCP data units
 +
|-
 +
|'''The method of claim 1, wherein a header decompression or a deciphering is performed between the receiving step and the storing step.'''
 +
|'''if received PDCP SN <nowiki>></nowiki> Next_PDCP_RX_SN: - '''<br>'''decipher the PDCP PDU '''as specified in the subclause 5.6, using COUNT based on RX_HFN - 1 and the received PDCP SN;<br>--<br>--<br>if the PDCP PDU has not been discarded in the above: <br>- perform deciphering and header decompression (if configured) for the PDCP PDU as specified in the subclauses 5.6 and 5.5.5, respectively; <br>- if a PDCP SDU with the same PDCP SN is stored:<br> - discard this PDCP SDU;<br> - else: - '''store the PDCP SDU''';<br>---<br>---
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''Claim7'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "4"|The next PDCP sequence no. is always set as previous PDCP sequence no. <nowiki>+</nowiki> 1
 +
|-
 +
|'''The method of claim 1, wherein the sequence number <nowiki>+</nowiki>1 indicates a sequence number that is immediately subsequent to the sequence number of the last delivered data unit.'''
 +
|rowspan = "3"|set Next_PDCP_RX_SN to the received PDCP SN <nowiki>+</nowiki> 1;
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''Claim8'''
 +
|-
 +
|'''The method of claim 1, wherein the sequence number <nowiki>+</nowiki>1 indicates a next sequence number from the sequence number of the last delivered data unit.'''
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''Claim9'''
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures''' 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) '''Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)'''
 +
|rowspan = "2"|The last delivered data unit to an upper layer is named as Last_Submitted_PDCP_RX_SN
 +
|-
 +
|'''The method of claim 1, further comprising: setting a sequence number of a last data unit delivered to an upper layer as a `LAST`.'''
 +
|set Last_Submitted_PDCP_RX_SN to the PDCP SN of the last PDCP SDU delivered to upper layers
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
*Click [[Media:ramb.xls|here]] to download the excel sheet.
 +
*Click [[Media:pdcp.pdf|here]] to download the release for 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)
  
'''Note:'''
+
==Ranking of Non ETSI patents==
* The subsidiaries of '''Nokia''' includes : Nokia Telecommunication Oy and Nokia Siemens.
+
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
* The subsidiaries of Ericsson includes : Ericsson GE Mobile Communications Inc, LM Ericsson, ST-Ericsson,Sony Ericcson.
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Sno.'''</font>
* The Subsidiaries of Alcatel includes : Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel Shangai bell company, Alcatel Transmission, Lucent Technologies, CIT Alcatel.
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Patent/Publication No.'''</font>
* The Subsidiaries of NTT includes : Nippondenso Co, NTT Docomo.
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''US Class (primary)'''</font>
* The subsidiaries of NEC Corp includes : NEC Access technica Ltd.,NEC Laboratories.
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Title'''</font>
* The subsidiaries of Phlilps  includes : Philips Electronics, Philips Intellectual property & standards.
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Publication Year'''</font>
* The subsidiaries of Fujistu  includes : Fujistu ten Limited, Fujitsu Microelectronics Limited.
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Priority Year(s)'''</font>
* The subsidiaries of AT&T includes : AT&T Mobility, AT & T BLS Intellectual Property, AT&T Bell Laboratories, AT&T Wireless Services Inc., BellSouth Intellectual Property Corporation.
+
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Legal status'''</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#538ED5"|<font color="#FFFFFF">'''Rank'''</font>
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|1
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7548730.PN.&OS=PN/7548730&RS=PN/7548730 US7548730B2 ]</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|375267
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Systems and methods for improving performance of multiple spatial communication channels
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2007
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2006
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Patented Case
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''1'''
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"|2
 +
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220090232229%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20090232229&RS=DN/20090232229 US20090232229A1 ]</font>
 +
|align = "center"|375260
 +
|Device, system and method of resource allocation in a wireless network
 +
|align = "center"|2009
 +
|align = "center"|2008
 +
|align = "center"|Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination
 +
|align = "center"|'''2'''
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|3
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220080187066%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20080187066&RS=DN/20080187066 US20080187066A1 ]</font>
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|375267
 +
|bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Detection method and apparatus for a multi-stream MIMO
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2008
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|2007
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|Non Final Action Mailed
 +
|align = "center" bgcolor = "#B8CCE4"|'''2'''
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"|4
 +
|align = "center"|<font color="#0000FF">[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7796546.PN.&OS=PN/7796546&RS=PN/7796546 US7796546B2]</font>
 +
|align = "center"|370315
 +
|Apparatus and method for supporting multiple links in a network using frequency bands
 +
|align = "center"|2007
 +
|align = "center"|2006
 +
|align = "center"|Patented Case
 +
|align = "center"|'''4'''
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
==Filing trends over the years==
+
'''Disclaimer: Patent ranking has been done according to the following logic:'''
[[Image:ftf.jpg|thumb|1000px|centre|Filing trends over the years]]
+
*'''Rank-1:'''  Granted +  LTE related (claims)
 +
*'''Rank-2''': Published + LTE related (claims)
 +
*'''Rank-3''':  LTE related (Full spec )
 +
*'''Rank-4''': May be relevant and requires further analysis
 +
*'''Rank-5''': Abandoned or Expired
  
==Filing trends for top 10 companies==
+
==Interactive Taxonomy==
[[Image:t10f.jpg|thumb|1000px|centre|Filing trends for top 10 companies]]
+
<mm>[[mmap977(1.1).mm|title LTE]]</mm>
 +
Note:This interactive taxonomy consists of 131 sample documents.
  
==Year by year trends of top 5 companies==
+
==Dolcera Dashboard==
[[Image:fttf.jpg|thumb|1000px|centre|Year by year trends of top 5 companies]]
+
[[Image:dbim.png|centre|800px]]
 +
===Dashboard Link===
 +
''The Dashboard is Dolcera's visualization platform to present the organized patent landscape''
 +
*Best viewed in Internet explorer 6 and higher versions
 +
*To view dashboard you would require a flash player. Kindly install a flash player if its not installed in your system
 +
 
 +
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" width="100%"
 +
|'''[https://www.dolcera.com/auth/dashboard/dashboard.php?workfile_id=977 LTE - Dashboard] '''
 +
|width="100"|[[Image:dashboard_thumb.png|center|100px|]]
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
*Note1: Use the following credentials to view the dashboard 1.1
 +
**Username: demo@dolcera.com
 +
**Password: demo123
 +
 
 +
*<font size = "4">Note2: </font><font color="#FF0000"><font size = "4">A total of 131 patents were considered for the creation of the sample dashboard</font></font>
 +
 
 +
==LTE Release 8==
 +
[[media:Lte_rel8.zip|LTE Release 8]]
 +
==Meeting minutes==
 +
Click [http://ftp.3gpp.org/specs/html-info/Meetings-RP.htm#RP-ah-27107 here] for the meeting minutes.
 +
 
 +
==<span style="color:#C41E3A">Like this report?</span>==
 +
<p align="center"> '''This is only a sample report with brief analysis''' <br>
 +
'''Dolcera can provide a comprehensive report customized to your needs'''</p>
 +
{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" align="center" "
 +
|style="background:lightgrey" align = "center"  colspan = "3"|'''[mailto:info@dolcera.com <span style="color:#0047AB">Buy the customized report from Dolcera</span>]'''
 +
|-
 +
| align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/services/ip-patent-analytics-services Patent Analytics Services]
 +
|align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/services/business-research-services Market Research Services]
 +
|align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/tools/patent-dashboard Purchase Patent Dashboard]
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/services/ip-patent-analytics-services/patent-search/patent-landscapes Patent Landscape Services]
 +
|align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/research-processes Dolcera Processes]
 +
|align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/industries Industry Focus]
 +
|-
 +
|align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/services/ip-patent-analytics-services/patent-search/patent-landscapes Patent Search Services]
 +
|align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/services/ip-patent-analytics-services/alerts-and-updates Patent Alerting Services]
 +
|align = "center"| [http://www.dolcera.com/website_prod/tools Dolcera Tools]
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
<br>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
* '''Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, and Matthew Baker, "LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution - From Theory to Practice", John Wiley & Sons, 2009,'''
 +
* Martin Sauter, "From GSM to LTE - An Introduction to Mobile Networks and Mobile Broadband", John Wiley & Sons, 2010,
 
* Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld, Per Beming, "3G Evolution - HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband", 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2008,
 
* Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld, Per Beming, "3G Evolution - HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband", 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2008,
 
* Mustafa Ergen, "Mobile Broadband - Including WiMAX and LTE", Springer, NY, 2009
 
* Mustafa Ergen, "Mobile Broadband - Including WiMAX and LTE", Springer, NY, 2009
* Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, and Matthew Baker, "LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution - From Theory to Practice", John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
 
 
* Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson, "Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio And Cellular Technology", CRC Press, 2009,  
 
* Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson, "Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio And Cellular Technology", CRC Press, 2009,  
 
* Ezio Biglieri, Robert calderbank, Anthony Constantinides et.al ,"MIMO Wireless Communications" Cambridge University Press, 2007
 
* Ezio Biglieri, Robert calderbank, Anthony Constantinides et.al ,"MIMO Wireless Communications" Cambridge University Press, 2007
----
+
 
 +
 
 +
==Contact Dolcera==
 +
 
 
{| style="border:1px solid #AAA; background:#E9E9E9" align="center"
 
{| style="border:1px solid #AAA; background:#E9E9E9" align="center"
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:lightgrey" | Contact Dolcera
+
! style="background:lightgrey" | Samir Raiyani
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''Email''': [mailto:info@dolcera.com info@dolcera.com]
 
| '''Email''': [mailto:info@dolcera.com info@dolcera.com]
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Phone''': +1-650-269-7952, +91-40-2355-3493
+
| '''Phone''': +1-650-269-7952
 
|}
 
|}

Latest revision as of 00:04, 14 June 2011

This report presents a brief summary about Dolcera's capabilities in working with standards, with LTE as an example. The taxonomy covers most of the important aspects of LTE. Also presented are examples of mapping patents to standards going to the detail of graphical analysis. Analysis of IPR declarations made to ETSI, and documents uncovered by Dolcera search is also provided.

Rationale

  • LTE is the most suited mobile technology as it provides higher data rates required for the future and is an improvement over the established GSM/EDGE/HSPA systems
  • LTE is promoted by major corporates as the technology enabling future communication
  • The following advantages are expected to be obtained with the realization of LTE
    • Reduced cost per bit
    • Increased service provisioning - more services at lower cost with better user experience
    • Flexibility of use of existing and new frequency bands
    • Simplified architecture, Open interfaces
    • Allow for reasonable terminal power consumption

Background description

LTE (Long Term Evolution), is the latest standard in the mobile network technology that came into existence because of the growing needs of faster data rates. It is a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which realized this technology. LTE is an advancement to previously realized technologies such as GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSxPA etc. Although LTE is often marketed as 4G, first-release LTE is actually a 3.9G technology since it does not fully comply with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements.

LTE-Advanced has been granted 4G compliance given the significant improvement they provide over 3G technologies [1]

Voice traffic will be supported mainly as Voice over IP (VoIP) enabling better integration with other multimedia services. LTE is being designed to be a high data rate and low latency system. LTE is also aimed at minimizing cost and power consumption while ensuring backward-compatibility and a cost effective migration from UMTS systems. LTE tutorial

Technical details

Performance requirements

LTE is expected to support different types of services including web browsing, FTP, video streaming, VoIP, online gaming, real time video, push-to-talk and push-to-view. Therefore, it is being designed to be a high data rate and low latency system as indicated by the key performance criteria shown below.

LTE architecture

Protocol stack

Data flow

The data flow through protocol stack can be shown as

LTE frame structure

In order to maintain synchronization and manage different types of information exchange that need to be carried between the base-station or eNodeB and the User Equipment (UE), LTE system has a defined LTE frame and sub frame structure for the E-UTRA or Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

There are two types of LTE frame structure:

  • Type 1: FDD systems
    • The basic type 1 LTE frame has an overall length of 10 ms. This is then divided into a total of 20 individual slots. LTE sub frames then consist of two slots - in other words there are ten LTE sub frames within a frame.
  • Type 2: TDD systems
    • The frame structure for the type 2 frames used on LTE TDD is somewhat different. The 10 ms frame comprises two half frames, each 5 ms long. The LTE half-frames are further split into five sub frames, each 1ms long.
  • The subframes may be divided into standard sub frames of special sub frames. The special sub frames consist of three fields
    • DwPTS - Downlink Pilot Time Slot
    • GP - Guard Period
    • UpPTS - Uplink Pilot Time Slot.

LTE enabling technologies

  • OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
    • It is used in the downlink communication of LTE as it can support high data rates
  • SC-FDMA (Single Carrier FDMA)
    • It is used in the uplink communication of LTE as it helps in reducing terminal power consumption
  • MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output)
    • Helps in obtaining increased data rates with usage of many antennas.
  • System Architecture Evolution(SAE)
    • New core network architecture to support the high-throughput / low latency LTE access system
    • Simplified network architecture
    • All IP network
    • All services are via PS domain only, No CS domain
    • Support mobility between multiple heterogeneous access system
  • Fractional frequency reuse
    • Helps in reusing the frequency so that spectral efficiency can be improved

Taxonomy

Long Term Evolution

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Major players in the ETSI list for LTE

Etsifa.jpg

Relevant Documents for LTE in the ETSI list

S.No Publication Number Title Filing date Expiry date Priority Date Assignee/Applicant Count of Cited Refs - Patent Rating
1 US5754976A Algebraic codebook with signal-selected pulse amplitude/position combinations for fast coding of speech 7/28/1995 7/28/2015 1990-02-23 | 1992-09-10 | 1995-02-06 | 1995-07-28 Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, CA 44 2
2 US6724976B2 Communication system 12/21/2000 12/21/2020 1992-03-26 | 1992-09-25 | 1993-03-25 | 1993-09-27 | 1998-04-22 | 2000-02-16 | 2000-12-21 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka, JP 110 3
3 US6633600B2 Traffic lights in a code division multiple access (CDMA) modem 4/24/2001 4/24/2021 1995-06-30 | 1996-06-27 | 1998-02-17 | 1999-11-22 | 2001-04-24 InterDigital Technology Corporation, Wilmington, DE, US 85 3
4 US7190966B2 Method and apparatus for performing an access procedure 6/29/2005 6/29/2025 1996-06-27 | 1998-01-06 | 2000-11-22 | 2002-03-01 | 2003-03-26 | 2004-06-14 | 2005-06-29 InterDigital Technology Corporation, Wilmington, DE, US 91 4
5 US7437177B2 Method employed by a base station for controlling initial power ramp-up using short codes 3/14/2008 3/14/2028 1996-06-27 | 1998-01-06 | 2000-11-22 | 2002-03-01 | 2003-03-26 | 2004-06-14 | 2005-06-29 | 2008-03-14 InterDigital Communications Corp., Wilmington, DE, US 190 4

Disclaimer:

  • Rating is given based on claims, no.of cited patents, expiry date and priority date
  • Rating is done on a scale from 1 to 5

Ranking of ETSI patents

S.No Patent/Publication No. International Class (primary) Assignee Title Publication Year Priority Year(s) Legal Status Rank
1 US20100182939A1 H04J000300 Nokia Corporation Configuration of multi-periodicity semi-persistent scheduling for time division duplex operation in a packet-based wireless communication system 2010 2008 | 2009 Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination 2
2 EP2181559A1 H04W003608 Nokia Siemens Networks Handover of a user equipment with forwarding and reusing a user equipment configuration 2010 2007 | 2008 | 2008 Request for Examination Filed 2
3 EP1961141A2 H04L000100 Ericsson AB Efficient channel quality reporting and link adaptation for multi-carrier broadband wireless communication 2008 2005 | 2006 | 2006 Request for Examination Filed 2
4 US20110029834A1 H04L000118 Alcatel-Lucent Method for operating harq buffer 2011 2008 | 2009 | 2009 Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination 2
5 US20090086710A1 H04J000324 Qualcomm Incorporated Method and apparatus for implementing lte rlc header formats 2009 2007 | 2008 Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination 3

Click here to see full list of Ranking of ETSI patents

Disclaimer: Patent ranking has been done according to the following logic:

  • Rank-1: Granted + LTE related (claims)
  • Rank-2: Published + LTE related (claims)
  • Rank-3: LTE related (Full spec )
  • Rank-4: May be relevant and requires further analysis
  • Rank-5: Abandoned or Expired


Ptrank1.jpg

Note: Here a total of 44 patents from ETSI have been taken, out of which Qualcomm Incorporated has 6 patents, Alcatel-lucent has 8 patents, Ericsson AB, Nokia corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks have 10 each

MIMO(Multiple Input Multiple Output)

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technologies introduced in LTE such as spatial multiplexing, transmit diversity, and beamforming are key components for providing higher peak rate at a better system efficiency, which are essential for supporting future broadband data service over wireless links.In Long Term Evolution (LTE), MIMO technologies have been widely used to improve downlink peak rate, cell coverage, as well as average cell throughput.

To achieve this diverse set of objectives, LTE adopted various MIMO technologies including transmit diversity, single user (SU)-MIMO, multiuser (MU)-MIMO, closed-loop rank-1 precoding, and dedicated beamforming. MIMO in LTE


Concept table for MIMO

S.no MIMO OFDMA SCFDMA Interference SDMA HARQ Multipath LTE Others
1 Multiple adj input* adj multiple adj output* OFDM scfdma interference near3 mitigate* Space adj2 time adj2 transmit adj2 diversity HARQ Multipath near2 effect* LTE channel adj2 quality adj2 indication adj2 channel*
2 Distributed adj transmission adj directional adj reception (orthogonal adj frequency adj division) near2 multiplex* SINGLE adj CARRIER adj FREQUENCY adj DIVISION adj MULTIPLE adj ACCESS* interference near3 cancel* antenna adj2 multiplex* Hybrid adj automatic adj repeat adj request Multipath near2 propagat* Long term evolution CQICH
3 DTDR ofdma scfdm interference near3 reduc* SDMA feedback adj2 mechani* Multipath near2 phenomenon Evolved packet system Downlink adj2 Channel adj2 Descriptor adj2 message*
4 transmission adj2 diversit* (orthogonal adj frequency adj division) near2 (multiple adj access) single adj carrier adj frequency adj division adj multiplex* interference near3 null* Space adj2 division adj2 multiple adj2 access Hybrid ARQ System architecture evolution adaptive adj2 modulation adj2 coding
5 SFBC discrete adj multi adj tone SC-FDMA Space adj2 domain adj2 multiple adj2 access ARQ E-UTRA* pre adj coding*3
6 Space adj2 frequency adj2 block adj coding DMT DFT-spread adj OFDM plural* near2 (spatial adj streams automatic adj repeat adj request Evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access per adj2 antenna adj2 rate adj2 control
7 SU adj2 MIMO (adaptive ADJ modulation*) DFT-S-OFDMA spatial adj2 adaptation Automatic Repeat Query permutation adj2 mode adj2 selection
8 MU adj2 MIMO sofdm Interleaved adj FDMA adaptive adj2 transmi*
9 space adj2 time adj2 cod* Interleaved adj Frequency adj Division adj Multiple adj Access Bell adj2 Labs adj2 Layer adj2 Space adj2 Time
10 multiple adj antenna* IFDMA spatial adj2 multiplex*
11 multi adj antenna* Discrete adj Fourier adj Transform adj Spread adj Orthogonal adj Frequency adj Multiple adj Access
12 multiple adj transmit* adj2 receive* DFT- SOFDM
13 plural* adj2 antenna*
14 atleast adj2 two adj2 antenna*
15 layer adj map*4
16 beam adj2 steer*
17 smart adj antenna*1
18 spatial adj multiplex*3
19 multiple adj transmit* adj antenna*1
20 multiple adj receive* adj antenna*1
21 Adaptive adj2 antenna adj2 steer*
22 beam adj2 forming
23 eigenmode adj2 multiplex*

Control patents

  • Control patents are mostly used
    • to prepare concepts
    • to search classes, and
    • to verify the search strategy
  • Control patents are found by running a query with narrow keywords, and in this process litigation's and file wrappers are also looked at.
S.No Patent/Publication No. Title Abstract
1 US6873606 Rate adaptive transmission scheme for MIMO systems A rate adaptive transmission scheme for MIMO systems, which can transmit a variable number of data symbol streams, provide transmit diversity for each data symbol stream, and fully utilize the total transmit power of the system and the full power of each antenna. In one method, at least one data symbol stream is received for transmission from a plurality of antennas. Each data symbol stream is scaled with a respective weight corresponding to the amount of transmit power allocated to that stream. The scaled data symbol stream(s) are multiplied with a transmit basis matrix to provide a plurality of transmit symbol streams for the plurality of antennas. The transmit basis matrix (e.g., a Walsh-Hadamard matrix or a DFT matrix) is defined such that each data symbol stream is transmitted from all antennas and each transmit symbol stream is transmitted at (or near) the full power for the associated antenna.
2 US7233625 Preamble design for multiple input--multiple output (MIMO), orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system One or more preambles are inserted into frames of Orthogonal Frequency Multiplexing (OFDM)-Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) signals. The preamble is received by the antennas of a receiver, decoded and compared to known values to provide synchronization, framing, channels estimation, offsets and other corrections to the transmitted signal.
3 US7248559 Scattered pilot pattern and channel estimation method for MIMO-OFDM systems A method and apparatus are provided for reducing the number of pilot symbols within a MIMO-OFDM communication system, and for improving channel estimation within such a system. For each transmitting antenna in an OFDM transmitter, pilot symbols are encoded so as to be unique to the transmitting antenna. The encoded pilot symbols are then inserted into an OFDM frame to form a diamond lattice, the diamond lattices for the different transmitting antennae using the same frequencies but being offset from each other by a single symbol in the time domain. At the OFDM receiver, a channel response is estimated for a symbol central to each diamond of the diamond lattice using a two-dimensional interpolation. The estimated channel responses are smoothed in the frequency domain. The channel responses of remaining symbols are then estimated by interpolation in the frequency domain.
4 US7548506 System access and synchronization methods for MIMO OFDM communications systems and physical layer packet and preamble design A method and apparatus are provided for performing acquisition, synchronization and cell selection within an MIMO-OFDM communication system. A coarse synchronization is performed to determine a searching window. A fine synchronization is then performed by measuring correlations between subsets of signal samples, whose first signal sample lies within the searching window, and known values. The correlations are performed in the frequency domain of the received signal. In a multiple-output OFDM system, each antenna of the OFDM transmitter has a unique known value. The known value is transmitted as pairs of consecutive pilot symbols, each pair of pilot symbols being transmitted at the same subset of sub-carrier frequencies within the OFDM frame.
5 US7120395 MIMO communications The present invention allows a wireless communication system, such as a base station, to select N antennas from an associated group of M antennas for transmitting multiple streams of data to a given user. Based on the channel conditions between the M antennas of the wireless communication system and the multiple antennas at the receiver, the N antennas to use for transmission are selected to enhance channel capacity, signal-to-noise ratios, or a combination thereof. The channel conditions are measured at the receiver, and may be sent back to the wireless communication system for processing or may be processed at the receiver, wherein instructions are transmitted back to the wireless communication system to control antenna selection.

Click here to see full list of LTE control patents

Search Strategy - MIMO

Company wise distribution of IP

Company wise distribution of IP

Note:

  • The subsidiaries of Nokia includes : Nokia Telecommunication Oy and Nokia Siemens.
  • The subsidiaries of Ericsson/LM Ericsson includes : Ericsson GE Mobile Communications Inc, ST-Ericsson, Sony Ericcson.
  • The Subsidiaries of Alcatel includes : Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel Shangai bell company, Alcatel Transmission, Lucent Technologies, CIT Alcatel.
  • The Subsidiaries of NTT includes : Nippondenso Co, NTT Docomo.
  • The subsidiaries of NEC Corp includes : NEC Access technica Ltd.,NEC Laboratories.
  • The subsidiaries of Phlilps includes : Philips Electronics, Philips Intellectual property & standards.
  • The subsidiaries of Fujistu includes : Fujistu ten Limited, Fujitsu Microelectronics Limited.
  • The subsidiaries of AT&T includes : AT&T Mobility, AT & T BLS Intellectual Property, AT&T Bell Laboratories, AT&T Wireless Services Inc., BellSouth Intellectual Property Corporation.

Filing trends over the years

Filing trends over the years

Year by year trends of top 5 companies

Year by year trends of top 5 companies


Companies with relevant IP for further analysis

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Disclaimer 1: Here primarily, companies with an average annual revenue less than 400 million USD are considered. In addition to these, some big companies whose primary interest is not LTE and those which provide IP licensing are also considered.

Disclaimer 2 :The above graph is based on raw data available with us. Some of the patents may not be relevant

Most cited documents in non-ETSI list for MIMO

S.No Patent/Publication No. Title Priority Date Assignee/Applicant Count of Citing Patents
1 US5541955A Adaptive data rate modem 1992-11-06 | 1995-04-28 Pericle Communications Company 272
2 US5999561A Direct sequence spread spectrum method, computer-based product, apparatus and system tolerant to frequency 1997-05-20 | 1997-07-08 | 1997-09-15 Sanconix Inc 161
3 US5752164A Autonomous remote measurement unit for a personal communications service system 1992-04-27 | 1995-04-25 American PCS L 146
4 US4441180A Service integrated communication transmission and interchange system 1979-06-01 | 1980-05-30 Licentia Patent Verwaltungs GmbH 134
5 US6072994A Digitally programmable multifunction radio system architecture 1995-8-31 Northrop Grumman Corporation 133
6 US6314147B1 Two-stage CCI/ISI reduction with space-time processing in TDMA cellular networks 1997-11-04 | 1998-11-04 The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University 132
7 US5859878A Common receive module for a programmable digital radio 1995-8-31 Northrop Grumman Corporation 131
8 US5345471A Ultra-wideband receiver 1993-12-4 The Regents of the University of California 130
9 US5694134A Phased array antenna system including a coplanar waveguide feed arrangement 1992-12-01 | 1993-10-21 | 1994-01-14 Superconducting Core Technologies, Inc. 128
10 US5347286A Automatic antenna pointing system based on global positioning system (GPS) attitude information 1992-02-13 | 1993-03-19 Trimble Navigation Limited 115

Patent mapping by graphical analysis

Sno. Patent/Publication No. Title Figure analyzed Analyzed result Standard mapped into
1 US20070217538A1 Systems and methods for improving performance of multiple spatial communication channels Figure 4 DL data rate: 220 M bps for 3x3 advanced MIMO-SVD LTE release 8, category 4
2 US20090232229A1 Device, system and method of resource allocation in a wireless network Figure 2A DL data rate: 210 M bps for a 2x2 MIMO at cell centre LTE release 8, category 5

Claim Mapping

Process Flow

Dp1.jpg

Sample claim charting

S.No. Patent/Publication No. Claim Language Relevant Section in LTE release 8 Technical Comments
1 US20090318127 Claim1 4.2.1 PDCP structure 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) The PDCP layer receives data from the lower layer i.e RLC layer
A data communication method in a wireless communication system, the method comprising: receiving, from a lower layer,  Ramc1.jpg
a data unit having a sequence number; storing the received data unit in a buffer; 4.3.2 Services expected from lower layers 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) The data from the MAC buffer is delivered to the PDCP layer in sequence (based on sequence number) through the RLC layer
in-sequence delivery, except at re-establishment of lower layers;
determining whether the sequence number of the received data unit is equal to a sequence number +1 from a sequence number of a last delivered data unit; 5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) The next PDCP sequence no. is always set as previous PDCP sequence no. + 1
set Next_PDCP_RX_SN to the received PDCP SN + 1;
and delivering, in ascending order, all stored data units with consecutively associated sequence numbers greater than or equal to the sequence number of the received data unit based on the determining step. 5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) The data unit delivered to the upper layers in an ascending order based on the count value
deliver to upper layers in ascending order of the associated COUNT value
Claim2 4.2.1 PDCP structure 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) The layer below the PDCP layer is RLC layer
The method of claim 1, wherein the lower layer is a Radio Link Control (RLC) layer.  Ramc1.jpg
Claim3 4.2.2 PDCP entities 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) Steps of determining and delivering PDCP data units are performed in a PDCP entity
The method of claim 1, wherein the steps of determining and delivering are performed in a Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) entity.  Ramc3.jpg
Claim4 4.2.2 PDCP entities 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) On the PDCP SDU, numbering sequence is checked, header compression is done and send to the upper layers
The method of claim 1, wherein the data unit is a PDCP Service Data Unit (SDU).  Ramc3.jpg
Claim5 4.4 Functions 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) SDU is received through a re-establishment of lower layer i.e RLC layer
The method of claim 1, wherein the data unit is received through a RLC re-establishment. duplicate elimination of lower layer SDUs at re-establishment of lower layers for radio bearers mapped on RLC AM
Claim6 5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) Header decompression or deciphering is done between the stages of receiving and storing the PDCP data units
The method of claim 1, wherein a header decompression or a deciphering is performed between the receiving step and the storing step. if received PDCP SN > Next_PDCP_RX_SN: -
decipher the PDCP PDU as specified in the subclause 5.6, using COUNT based on RX_HFN - 1 and the received PDCP SN;
--
--
if the PDCP PDU has not been discarded in the above:
- perform deciphering and header decompression (if configured) for the PDCP PDU as specified in the subclauses 5.6 and 5.5.5, respectively;
- if a PDCP SDU with the same PDCP SN is stored:
- discard this PDCP SDU;
- else: - store the PDCP SDU;
---
---
Claim7 5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) The next PDCP sequence no. is always set as previous PDCP sequence no. + 1
The method of claim 1, wherein the sequence number +1 indicates a sequence number that is immediately subsequent to the sequence number of the last delivered data unit. set Next_PDCP_RX_SN to the received PDCP SN + 1;
Claim8
The method of claim 1, wherein the sequence number +1 indicates a next sequence number from the sequence number of the last delivered data unit.
Claim9 5.1.2 DL Data Transfer Procedures 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8) The last delivered data unit to an upper layer is named as Last_Submitted_PDCP_RX_SN
The method of claim 1, further comprising: setting a sequence number of a last data unit delivered to an upper layer as a `LAST`. set Last_Submitted_PDCP_RX_SN to the PDCP SN of the last PDCP SDU delivered to upper layers
  • Click here to download the excel sheet.
  • Click here to download the release for 3GPP TS 36.323 V8.6.0 (2009-06) Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification (Release 8)

Ranking of Non ETSI patents

Sno. Patent/Publication No. US Class (primary) Title Publication Year Priority Year(s) Legal status Rank
1 US7548730B2 375267 Systems and methods for improving performance of multiple spatial communication channels 2007 2006 Patented Case 1
2 US20090232229A1 375260 Device, system and method of resource allocation in a wireless network 2009 2008 Docketed New Case - Ready for Examination 2
3 US20080187066A1 375267 Detection method and apparatus for a multi-stream MIMO 2008 2007 Non Final Action Mailed 2
4 US7796546B2 370315 Apparatus and method for supporting multiple links in a network using frequency bands 2007 2006 Patented Case 4

Disclaimer: Patent ranking has been done according to the following logic:

  • Rank-1: Granted + LTE related (claims)
  • Rank-2: Published + LTE related (claims)
  • Rank-3: LTE related (Full spec )
  • Rank-4: May be relevant and requires further analysis
  • Rank-5: Abandoned or Expired

Interactive Taxonomy

LTE

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Note:This interactive taxonomy consists of 131 sample documents.

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LTE Release 8

LTE Release 8

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References

  • Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, and Matthew Baker, "LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution - From Theory to Practice", John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
  • Martin Sauter, "From GSM to LTE - An Introduction to Mobile Networks and Mobile Broadband", John Wiley & Sons, 2010,
  • Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld, Per Beming, "3G Evolution - HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband", 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2008,
  • Mustafa Ergen, "Mobile Broadband - Including WiMAX and LTE", Springer, NY, 2009
  • Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson, "Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio And Cellular Technology", CRC Press, 2009,
  • Ezio Biglieri, Robert calderbank, Anthony Constantinides et.al ,"MIMO Wireless Communications" Cambridge University Press, 2007


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